Gather Analyse Synthesise
Editorial Board Guest Reviewers. Give Today Payment Portal. How to Give Grantmaking Give Today. Objective 11 reflects an important component of the educational process — training students in the habits of thought in our disciplines. IDEA research has found that it is related to Objectives 6 through 10 and Objective 12, which all address activities at the upper levels of cognitive taxonomies, activities requiring application and frequent synthesis and evaluation of ideas and events 3. As Patricia King points out, a student who appreciates why people approach controversial issues in her discipline from different perspectives is more likely to see and appreciate the reasons people approach social controversies from different perspectives.
In math, sciences, and engineering courses, encourage students participating in study groups not only to share ideas for solving problems but also to provide reasons for the problem solving ideas they advance. Have students respond to an editorial in a newspaper or to a review essay in a scholarly journal.
For that response, ask students to identify unstated assumptions, biases, and points of views and show how they undermine the argument the author is making. Teach students to use a pro and con grid to analyze ideas and points of view 7, see pages Take time in science and engineering classes to explore the ethical considerations of research questions and experimental design. In organized class debates, ask students to argue for a point of view counter to their own. Such problems have no known answer or solution and cannot be solved with formal rules of logic or mathematical formulas.
Ask students to come up with multiple solutions for each problem and rank the viability of each solution. Help students develop strategies for systematically gathering data according to methodologies in your discipline, assessing the quality and relevance of the data, evaluating sources, and interpreting the data 5, p.
Encourage students to engage their critical reasoning skills outside of the classroom 5, p. These might include its immediate and root causes; its general effects on individuals and communities; its consequences; its development through different stages; its history; and the history of attempts to address it. How the issue has been dealt with elsewhere. People who can help. This category encompasses experts in the field and people or organizations that have run or been involved in successful attempts to address the issue. Who is affected locally, and how. This really comprises two questions: a What population groups — geographical, ethnic, cultural, racial, class, etc.
These might include those who work with the first group s in the community teachers, for example, or social workers , those who depend on them, and those on whom they depend. The importance of the issue to the community. Again, this implies a double question: How important does the community perceive the issue to be? Community needs related to the issue. What has to be added to or removed from the community in order to improve the situation? What kinds of approaches will the community respond to or reject?
Other context information.
Community history, relationships among groups and individuals that might be relevant to your work, community culture, etc. Who, if anyone, has some influence or control over changing the situation. Public officials and other policymakers are often in this position. Business leaders, landlords, government enforcement agencies, schools, employers, hospitals and health personnel, and members of the affected group itself might also be in the position to change the situation by learning new skills or changing practices.
Determine your likely information sources As mentioned above, these encompass existing i. Natural examples Some of the more likely sources of natural examples: Program directors Friends or colleagues in the field Funders particularly public agencies, because their transactions, including whom they fund and why, are a matter of public record Leaders and members of community coalitions or partnerships Officials who coordinate community-wide efforts Members of the population most directly affected by the issue at hand Current or former participants in or beneficiaries of effective programs People who work in collaboration with programs — police, medical staff, teachers, etc.
Devise a plan for collecting information There are a number of considerations here: Who will gather what information? How will the information be gathered? Another issue is just how the information will be gathered. Getting information directly from other people, however, can be more complicated.
Will you engage in formal or informal interviews? In observation? Will you conduct surveys or public meetings? Your information-gathering methods will be determined by how much time you have, exactly what information you need, the depth of the information you need, and the abilities of the participants.
What adjustments will be made for particular gaps in experience or skills? In many cases, most or all of the group may need orientation or training before information gathering can begin. Synthesize: Take it all apart The process of synthesis involves breaking the information down into its component parts, sifting through those parts to see which fit together best for your situation, and then integrating them into an approach that is likely to work in your community.
What personal and environmental factors contribute to the problem? What are its root causes? Do you have the resources to address them, or are they beyond your scope e.
Gather Analyse Synthesise
Does the issue have a number of different effects, and if so, what are they? What are the likely consequences for the community as a whole if the issue is not resolved? An environmental health risk can not only kill or sicken individuals, but might also affect business productivity, insurance availability and rates, hospital costs, the housing market, or even — as in the case of the Love Canal neighborhood in Niagara Falls, NY — the existence of a neighborhood or community itself.
The community context of the issue. What are the specific local effects of the issue. Exactly who is affected? Exactly how are they affected? What are the consequences for those individuals?
Higher Level Thinking: Synthesis in Bloom's Taxonomy
For their families, friends, neighbors, and others they have dealings with? For the community as a whole? How, if at all, has it been addressed? What local conditions would change if the issue were addressed, and how would they change? Are there underlying conditions that have to change before the issue can be addressed? Successful and unsuccessful attempts to address the issue. These may have been gleaned both from the literature on best practices, and directly or at second hand from those involved in them.
What specific procedures — methods and intervention components — were used? What kinds of training — feedback, role play, modeling, etc. Was information provided to participants about when, why, and how to act? Were there positive or negative consequences that helped to establish or maintain change or its opposite? Were environmental barriers, policies, or regulations put in place or removed? What was the overall philosophy behind the approach? What aspects of the issue did it address?
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What kind s of community was it tried in? What population groups in terms of culture, age, social class, etc. Who was the approach to benefit? What were the specific results in the short term? In the long term? What makes a particular program, policy, or practice successful or unsuccessful?
What events, if any, were critical, to success or failure? What conditions — organizational features, participant characteristics, broader environmental factors — were critical? Is there a model successful program? Is there a model unsuccessful program? What has been used specifically with your population in your circumstances? Techniques used with children or adolescents that could be modified for use with adults, for instance, or vice-versa. Are they important enough that they need to be addressed? How will you deal with that? In general, did most or all successful programs direct their change efforts at the same group of people policy makers, for example , or was there a variety?
Analysis + Synthesis
This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application becasue they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.
Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication theme or speech , a plan of operations research proposal , or a set of abstract relations scheme for classifying information.
www.alexshah.ru/assets/62/rastreador-de-celular-sin-internet.php Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures.
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