The African slave trade is the example that comes to mind for most people, but other peoples were also enslaved, e. The slave trade was possible because there was a belief that anyone not living in the manner of Western Europeans was inherently backward or lesser than white Europeans. This dehumanization , or denial of humanness, was essential to colonial practices as it provided a justification for aggressive and morally questionable practices Haslam et al.
We can still see the effects of this ideology today in various social movements such as Occupy and the green movement. Under European colonial rule, political and economic systems were reorganized. High-status Europeans were in charge of the colonies. By the end of the nineteenth century, colonial administrations were self-financing systems.
Local indigenous leaders were bribed with titles, land, and tax breaks. This created an atmosphere of privilege that would create problems after decolonization. Local leaders then helped colonial administrators to force the local population in to a capitalist economic system.
Primary commodity production , or the production of raw materials, became the enforced norm, undermining traditional crafts and mixed farming systems.
Effects of Globalization on Quality of Life
Following the pattern of the forced-enclosure movement in Europe where communal lands were enclosed and used privately for the production of market-based agriculture, farmers were forced into growing cash-crops instead of growing crops for personal use. A culture of export monoculture where a country produces one or more primary commodity became established, a practice that is still at the heart of international trade today.
South Africa became known for gold and diamonds, Mexico for corn, and, India for cotton, tea, peanuts, and sugar cane. As a result of this reorganization, many indigenous farmers lost their land to commercial agricultural production.
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Men were frequently removed from their homes to work on these industrial farms in order to meet the growing demands for goods of European urban populations. The families left behind struggled to make ends meet. Malnutrition and social unrest grew among indigenous groups. Colonial administrators rarely acknowledged traditional female gender roles if they did not mirror the female gender role in Europe, which stated that women were the property of men, either fathers or husbands.
In areas where women had property rights, they were ignored by the colonial powers. In Kenya, Kikuyu women had rights to inherit land. After European domination, men were removed to work on European-owned farms and the land assumed to be owned by those men confiscated. Women lost control of the ability to grow sufficient food for their families and lost their status, wealth, and authority. The loss of self-governance and status, disruption of gender roles and family, and the loss of resources led to social unrest as large segments of indigenous populations were enslaved, killed, or died due to disease.
Globalization and Anthropology :: Outsourcing, Offshoring, Free Trade
Decolonization movements began in Haiti in The Haitian revolt was started by slaves on sugar plantations and was the only slave revolt to result in the founding of a state. Independence movements gained momentum over time, spreading to Latin America, Asia, and Africa even as late as the s South Africa. After the end of World War II, colonial subjects who had fought in the war returned with the ideologies of freedom and self-determination.
As colonies gained their independence, new leaders were expected to operate on the global stage in the same manner as and with their former colonial rulers in order to be considered legitimate. Frequently, people had some power in the colonial administration due to bribery or having some relationship to the former powers gained power in the newly independent states. Many newly emerged states required economic stimulation that came in the form proscribed by the only nation that had economic growth during WWII, the United States.
This model of economic development is sometimes referred to as neocolonialism ; in other words, the new states were closely tied to former colonial powers economically. We still see the lingering effects of colonial cultural imperialism , or expansion of one culture at the expense of others, in the languages, customs, and worldviews of former colonies.
In Haiti, French is the national language; in Brazil, Portuguese.
While western culture has historically taken precedence through the process of colonialism in more recent years that dominance has been challenged resulting in interconnected cultural space Inda and Rosaldo Post WWII, development focused on rebuilding countries devastated by the global conflict. Impacting the course of development were two polarizing social ideologies: communism and democracy. Much of the economic and political development pursued by the United States was geared toward stopping the spread of communism. The goal was to help underdeveloped countries, or countries that did not economically use all their available resources to the degree deemed appropriate by the former colonial powers, become modern.
The assumption was that all countries were on a universal path to modernity, an idea straight out of eighteenth century philosophies like social evolution see theories section from the beginning of the quarter and Social Darwinism. The UN was chartered in with fifty-one countries as original members.
The UN and its family of organizations work to promote respect for human rights, protect the environment, fight disease, foster development, and reduce poverty. It oversees progress and works to foster cooperation among nations.
The UN currently has member states each of which has a single vote in the General Assembly. The UN Security Council, which is responsible for overseeing international peace and security, has fifteen members: five permanent members China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, and United States and ten non-permanent members who are elected for a term of two-years by the General Assembly. Any nation can take part in discussions of the Security Council, but only the fifteen members have a vote.
At the same time that the UN was being organized, it was decided that an international banking system was integral to reconstruct the post-war world economy. In July at Bretton Woods, NH, a conference of forty-four financial ministers from Allied nations met to discuss the rebuilding of the world economy. The WB focused on making loans to governments in order to rebuild railroads, highways, bridges, ports, and other infrastructures. Its initial focus would be on rebuilding Western Europe and Japan, and then the focus would shift to the underdeveloped world. In , the WB had member countries, or shareholders, each of which is required to be a member of the IMF as well.
Those members with the largest shares tend to have more influence in both institutions. Debtor countries must also privatize publicly owned utilities and industries.
Critics claim that the institutions are setting social and economic policy without representation by elected representatives. Why was all this control deemed necessary? Walt Rostow, a preeminent development economist remarked in that the natural resources located in underdeveloped nations should be kept safe from Communist control in order for the United States, Western Europe, and Japan to maintain their way of life.
Since the end of WWII, models of development have changed based on political, economic, and social needs. The earliest development models were developed using several assumptions:. Modernization Model: This model is focused on change through economic growth. It is the basic model outlined above in the background information on the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Material progress through industrialization, market expansion, and technological innovation are key components as is a democratic political system with consolidated power vested in the state.
Material progress would result in better lives for the citizenry even if the environment and society suffered. Critics of this cookie-cutter approach to development claim that it is not sustainable because of the high consumption levels of resources. Fieldwork entails going to live with or. The world we live in today is going through enormous changes in economics, technology, culture, politics, etc. The effects of the changes are not so clear, since it is hard to predict how each sector would affect the other and how society will be affected. Globalization can be seen as a process in which societies around the world come together and expand through the combination of different forces.
This paper will explore the effects of globalization on US companies, US society and economy, and the implications for other countries in the post-industrial world. These forces are the direct result of advanced technology. Moreover, the forces were made possible thanks to the World Wide Web which is another force Friedman mentions. Technology and Internet are the real reasons our world became flat, and the reason the above flattener forces evolved. Companies, groups, and individuals — all connected together to form one global village.
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